Fundamental cosmology from precision spectroscopy: from ESPRESSO to the ELT


  • Call:

    IDPASC Portugal - PHD Programme 2019

  • Academic Year:

    2019 / 2020

  • Domains:

    Cosmology | Astrophysics

  • Supervisor:

    Carlos Martins

  • Co-Supervisor:

  • Institution:

    Universidade do Porto

  • Host Institution:

    CAUP / IA-Porto

  • Abstract:

    ESPRESSO is the next generation spectrograph, combining the efficiency of a modern Echelle spectrograph with extreme radial velocity and spectroscopic precision, and including improved stability thanks to a vacuum vessel and wavelength calibration done with a Laser Frequency Comb. ESPRESSO has been installed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory of the VLT and linked to the four Unit Telescopes (UT) through optical Coudé trains, allowing operations either with a single UT or with up to four UTs for about a 1.5 magnitude gain. One of the key science drivers of ESPRESSO is to perform improved tests of the stability of nature’s fundamental couplings, and in particular to confirm or rule out the recent indications of dipole-like variations of the fine-structure constant, alpha. In this thesis the student will be directly involved in the analysis and scientific exploration of the ESPRESSO fundamental physics GTO, and in the preparation of any follow-up observations. Apart from its obvious direct – and very significant – impact on cosmology and fundamental physics, the ESPRESSO data will also be important as the first reliable precursor of analogous high-resolution spectrographs for the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, and in particular of ELT-HIRES (in whose Phase B we are directly involved). A second goal of the thesis is to use the ESPRESSO data for detailed realistic simulations to assess the cosmology and fundamental physics impact of ELT-HIRES, also including tests beyond the sensitivity of ESPRESSO, such as redshift drift measurements and molecular tests of composition-dependent forces.